2018 is the 50th anniversary of the Fair Housing Act. HRRA will commemorate the anniversary throughout the year with special publications, events, guest speakers and more. Keep an eye on this page, as well as your HRRA communications, for details.
Fair housing is more than a list of dos and don'ts, rights and penalties, and mandatory continuing education. As stewards of the right to own, use and transfer private property, fair housing protects our livelihood and business as REALTORS® and depends on a free, open market that embraces equal opportunity. Fair Housing Makes US Stronger.
Learn more and download materials at NAR's website.
1789 - The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, the right to property
1857 - The Dred Scott Decision, U.S. Supreme Court declares that African-Americans could not be citizens and had no rights White citizens were bound to respect
1863 - Emancipation Proclamation, that all persons held as slaves within the rebellious states are, and henceforward shall be free
1865 - Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishes slavery in the U.S.
1866 - Civil Rights Act, declares that all citizens shall have the same rights as White citizens to own, occupy and transfer real estate
1868 - Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and all citizens are guaranteed equal protection of the law
1872 - Freedmen's Bureau, established in 1865 were shut down
1896 - Plessy v. Ferguson, U.S. Supreme Court rules that "Separate but Equal" is lawful
1908 - Founding of the National Association of Real Estate Boards, later the National Association of REALTORS®, which allows local boards to exclude African-Americans and women from membership
1916-1970 - The Great Migration, African-American migration north to take advantage of industrial employment
1917 - Buchanan v. Warley, U.S. Supreme Court outlaws zoning based on race; Emergence of racially restrictive covenants
1924 - Code of Ethics states that a REALTOR® should never be instrumental in introducing into a neighborhood a character of property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality or any individuals whose presence will clearly be detrimental to property values in that neighborhood
1926 - Corrigan v. Buckley, U.S. Supreme Court rejected a legal challenge to racially restrictive covenants
1934 - National Housing Act and Residential Security Maps had the result of denying financing in older urban areas and predominantly African-American neighborhoods
1943 - Stuyvesant Town housing project in New York approved for development with the exclusion of African-American residents
1947 - African-American real estate brokers form the National Association of Real Estate Brokers with the mission of "Democracy in Housing"
1948 - Shelley v. Kraemer, U.S. Supreme court ends enforcement of racially restrictive covenants
1950 - National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing formed
1956 - Interstate Highway Act paves way for urban highways often used to physically separate White and African-American communities
1957 - New York City becomes the first city to ban discrimination in private housing
1959 - Colorado becomes the first state to ban discrimination in private housing; By 1965, sixteen states had laws against public and private market housing discrimination
1962 - President Kennedy bans discrimination in housing funded by the federal government
1963 - California Rumford Act bans all housing discrimination in publically-funded housing and in all housing in buildings of five units or more
1967 - U.S. Supreme Court finds that a referendum, supported by the real estate industry, to repeal the Rumford Act violated the Civil Rights Act of 1866
1967 - National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing conducts audit to document fair housing/discriminatory treatment
1968 - Fair Housing Act